Although there is a lot of anecdotal evidence regarding TRE, and many pilot clinical outcome studies are in progress and have verified its efficacy around the globe, larger controlled quantitative and qualitative studies are needed. To participate in any ongoing research programs or to begin your own, please contact the TRE Research department at

Research Studies


PhD and Masters Dissertations

TRE focuses on releasing the psoas muscle, which connects the lumbar vertebrae to the pelvis. This powerful muscle holds physical, emotional, and mental stress that we carry in our bodies over the course of our lives.

  • Berceli D. Evaluating the effects of stress reduction exercises employing mild tremors: a pilot study [dissertation]. Phoenix (AZ): Arizona State University; 2009. | Download
  • McCann T. An evaluation of the effects of a training program in Trauma Releasing Exercises on quality of life [master’s thesis]. Cape Town, South Africa: University of Cape Town; 2011. | Download
  • Macedo D. [Tension and Trauma Releasing Exercise: Application to situations of domestic violence][Master’s thesis]. Brasilia, Brazil: Universidade de Brasilia; 2013. Portuguese | Download
  • Talvinen, Henna. The effects of TRE-method on stress relief: Research to describe the effects of TRE-method on stress relief among psychiatric healthcare employees. 2017. (Finnish with Abstract In English) | Download


Peer Reviewed Publications

  • Berceli D. [Neurogenic tremors: A body-oriented treatment for trauma in large populations]. Trauma und Gewalt. 2010 May; 4 (2):148-156. German. | Download
  • Berceli D, Salmon M, Bonifas R, Ndefo N. Effects of self-induced unclassified tremors on quality of life among non-professional caregivers: A pilot study. Glob Adv Health Med. 2014;3(5):45-48. | Abstract
  • Schweitzer E, Bradt KM. [Dem Malinowski-Blues entgehen: KÖrperorientierte EntspannungsÜbungen zur Stressbewältigung während der Feldforschung]. Ethnoscripts. 2015; 17(1): 228-242.German| Download
  • Preliminary Results of Several Small Sample Studies In The Ukraine, During TRE on Different Levels. 2015. | Download
  • Research from Ukraine. 2015. | Download
  • Harrison EG, Keating JL, Morgan P. et al. Novel Exercises for Restless Legs Syndrome: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. J Am Board Fam Med 2018; 31:783–794. | Download
  • Soluções Inovadoras para a Promoção de Saúde Mental de Adolescentes na Atenção Primária. 2018. | Portuguese Download
    Innovative Solutions for the Promotion of Adolescent Mental Health in Primary Care. 2018.| English Download
    Soluciones Innovadoras para la Promoción de Salud Mental de Adolescentes en la Atención Primaria. 2018. | Spanish Download
  • Winkler S. Neurogenes Zittern als neuer Baustein in der Traumabehandlung? - Praktische Erfahrungen und theoretische Erläuterungen, Psychotherapeutenjournal 3-2018, S. 244- 250 (
  • Предварительные результаты нескольких исследований проведенных на небольшой выборке в Украине, во время тренингов TRE (упражнения для снятия стресса и травмы по Д. Берсели)на различных уровнях | Download
  • Heath R. and Beattie J. Case Report of a Former Soldier Using TRE (Tension/Trauma Releasing Exercises) For PostTraumatic Stress Disorder Self-Care. Journal of Military and Veterans’ Health, 2019, Vol 27; No.3. | View
  • Thommessen, Cathrine Scharff & Fougner, Marit. Body awareness in acting – a case study of TRE as a supporting tool for drama students’ personal and professional development. Journal of Theatre, Dance and Performance Training, 2020. | View
  • M. Lynning, C. Svaneb, K.Westergaard, S.O.Bergien, S.R.Gunnersen, L.Skovgaard. Tension and trauma releasing exercises for people with multiple sclerosis – An exploratory pilot study. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 2021. | View


Research Reports

  • Department of Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury. Mind Body Skills for Regulating the Autonomic Nervous System. Published June 2011. | Download
  • TRE Tension, Stress and Trauma Releasing Exercises (Evaluation eines ressourcenschonenden traumatherapeutischen Verfahren) | Download
  • Salmon, M. Interim Research Report 2, May 2013. Pilot TRE Research program with Chrysalis Academy Students, Cape Town, South Africa. (Chrysalis is a school for at risk youngsters from disenfranchised communities who are interested in taking responsibility for transforming their lives). | Download


Published TRE Papers

  • Berceli D, Napoli M. A proposal for a mindfulness-based trauma-prevention program for social work professionals. Complement Health Pract Rev. 2007 Oct; 11 (3):1-13.| Abstract
  • Neurogenic Tremor Through TRE: Tension, Stress and Trauma Releasing Exercises according to D. Berceli in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). 2015. | Download
  • Edwards, Linda, Ph.D., M.A.P.S. The Potential Role of Trauma Releasing Exercises (TRE) in the Treatment of Trauma, PTSD and its Co morbid Conditions including Anxiety, Depression and Somatoform Disorders | Download


Research Conference Presentations

  • Johnson S. Interventions for stress and burnout of secondary school educators in high-risk schools. In: Robert M, ed. Abstracts of the 30th International Congress of Psychology; 2012 Jul 22-27; Cape Town, South Africa. Oxon, UK: Psychology Press; 2012. p. 167. | Download
  • Nibel H. Shake it up baby! Trauma and Tension Releasing Exercises (TRE@) as a new promising offering in promoting occupational health Proceedings of the Gesellschaft für Arbeitswissenschaft [Society of Occupational Science] Spring Convention; 2015 Feb 25-27; Karlruhe, Germany.  | Download
  • TRE Poster with Research Results (German) | Download
  • Körperorientiertes Coaching für ressourcenschonendes Auflösen chronischer Stressreaktionen (Powerpoint presenting TRE research results) | Download
  • STEPIŠNIK PERDIH, Tjaša. TRE for athletes. In: PAJEK, Maja (ed.), et al. Plenary lectures, invited proceedings, book of abstracts and book of proceedings, 5th International Scientific Conference of Slovenian Gymnastics Federation, Ljubljana, January 2018. Ljubljana: Slovenian Gymnastics Federation. 2018, p. 151-159. | Download
  • Lynning, Marie. Exploring outcomes of Tension and Trauma Releasing Exercises (TRE) on people with multiple sclerosis – a pilot study. RIMS conference June 2019 in Ljubljana (European Conference for Rehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis). View here: View abstract (Submission #47)Slide
  • Lynning, Marie. Perceived benefits of Tension and Trauma Releasing Exercises (TRE) among people with multiple sclerosis – qualitative results from a pilot study. RIMS conference June 2019 in Ljubljana (European Conference for Rehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis). View here: View abstract (Submission #48)Slide
  • TRE as a body-mind therapy working with traumatic consequences of physical and mental illness.

    “Using TRE (tension and trauma releasing exercises) with people with multiple sclerosis (MS) in The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Society”, Michael Nissen, Clinical psychologist, The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Society, Valby, Denmark.

    ”Hidden motion – working with deprived young adults in TRE and dance art”, Kirsi Törmi, Clinical Gestalt Psychotherapist, Postdoctoral researcher University of Arts, CERADA (The Center for Educational Research and Academic Development in the Arts).

    ”TRE for breast cancer survivors”, Tjaša Stepišnik Perdih, Psychotherapist, Assistant Professor, School of Advanced Social Studies, Department of Psychosocial Counseling

    Symposium on the 7. Biennal ESTD (European Society for Trauma & Dissociation) conference ”The Legacy of Trauma and Dissociation: Body and Mind in a New Perspective” October 2019, Rome. Symposium ID SM-0


Unpublished Papers

  • Berceli, D., & Holley, L. (2005). Evaluating the effects of stress reduction exercises. Unpublished paper, Arizona State University.


Case Studies

  • Salmon, M. June, 2016. TRE Case Study: How often is Bi-Polar misdiagnosed? Presentation, Somerset West, Western cape, South Africa. | Link
  • MyLife Organisation 2010-2011. TRE Case study: Stress in Youth. Cape Town, South Africa. Watch


Conference Presentations

  • Nissen, Michael: “Working with TRE (tension and trauma releasing exercises) with people with multiple sclerosis (MS) in The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Society” Presentation on The 4. European Conference for Trauma, Dissociation and Attachment, 27.-29. March 2014, Copenhagen.



  • Rosenberg, T.: “Testing the TRE method among people with arthritis.” Psychologist Michael Morin Nissen and psychologist Marianne Kjærem Nielsen held two workshops for the Danish Arthritis Association in the spring of 2019 with 20 participants in each workshop. Participants were to continue to do TRE for 3 months thereafter. Pixi edition in Danish of the external evaluation report of the company HR7 by psychologist Thomas Rosenberg. With support from The danish foundation TrygFonden. The Danish Arthritis Association, 2020 | View PDF


Research In Progress

  • Austrian Military Research Project Outline | Download
  • Neurogenic Tremors Training (TRE) for Stress and PTSD:  A Controlled Clinical Trial (VA Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona) | Download